（Adapted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia）
Contrasts in modern architecture, as shown by adjacent high-rises in Chicago, Illinois. IBM Plaza(right), by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, is a later example of the clean rectilinear lines and glass of the International Style, whereas Marina City, (left), by his student Bertrand Goldberg, reflects a more sculptural Mid-Century Modernaesthetic.
Modern architectureis generally characterized by simplification of form and an absence of applied decoration. It is a term applied to an overarching movement, with its exact definition and scope varying widely.In a broader sense, early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. It would take the form of numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, some in tension with one another, and often equally defying such classification.
The concept ofmodernism is a central theme in these efforts. Gaining popularity in North America after the Second World War, architectural modernism was adopted by many influential architects and architectural educators, and continued as a dominant architectural style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st century. Modernism eventually generated reactions, most notably Postmodernism which sought to preserve pre-modern elements, while "Neo-modernism" has emerged as a reaction to Post-modernism.
Notable architects important to the history and development of the modernist movement include Le Corbusier, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius, Frank Lloyd Wright, Louis Sullivan, Gerrit Rietveld, Oscar Niemeyerand Alvar Aalto.
Common themes of modern architecture include:
·simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"
·materials at 90 degrees to each other
·visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)
·the related concept of"Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else
·use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic
·particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines
The Crystal Palace, 1851, was one of the first buildings to have vast amounts of glass supported by structural metal, foreshadowing trends in Modernist architecture.
There are multiple lenses through which the evolution of modern architecture may be viewed. Some historians see it as a social matter, closely tied to the project of Modernityand thus the Enlightenment. Modern architecture developed, in their opinion, as a result of social and political revolutions. Others see Modern architecture as primarily driven by technological and engineering developments. Still other historians regard Modernism as a matter of taste, a reaction against eclecticismand the lavish stylistic excesses of Victorianand Edwardian architecture.
With the Industrial Revolution, the availability of newly-available building materials such as iron, steel, and sheet glassdrove the invention of new building techniques. In 1796, Shrewsburymill owner Charles Bage first used his 'fireproof' design, which relied on cast iron and brick with flag stone floors. Such construction greatly strengthened the structure of mills, which enabled them to accommodate much bigger machines. Due to poor knowledge of iron's properties as a construction material, a number of early mills collapsed. It was not until the early 1830s that Eaton Hodgkinsonintroduced the section beam, leading to widespread use of iron construction. This kind of austere industrial architectureutterly transformed the landscape of northern Britain, leading to the description of places like Manchesterand parts of West Yorkshireas "Dark satanic mills". The Crystal Palaceby Joseph Paxtonat the Great Exhibitionof 1851 was an early example of iron and glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall. A further development was that of the steel-framed skyscraper in Chicagoaround 1890 by William Le Baron Jenneyand Louis Sullivan.
Around 1900 a number of architects and designers around the world began developing new solutions to integrate traditional precedents (classicismor Gothic, for instance) with new technological possibilities. The work of Louis Sullivanand Frank Lloyd Wrightin Chicago, Victor Hortain Brussels, Antoni Gaudiin Barcelona, Otto Wagnerand the Vienna Secessionin Austria, and Charles Rennie Mackintoshin Glasgow, among many others, can be seen as a common struggle between old and new. The works of some of these were a part of what is broadly categorized as Art Nouveau("New Art"). Note that the Russianword for Art Nouveau, "Модерн", and the Spanishword for Art Nouveau, "Modernismo" are cognates of the Englishword "Modern" though they carry different meanings. An early use of the term in print around this time, approaching its later meaning, was in the title of a book by Otto Wagner. The fallout of the First World War resulted in additional experimentation and ideas. Following out of the experiments in Art Nouveau and its related movements around the world, modernism in architecture and design grew out of stylistic threads originating throughout the world.